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The Start of a New Development in Chemistry: Synthetic Organic Chemistry

Around 1820 a new development in chemistry have risen; instead of simply analyzing existing chemical compounds they started synthesizing it developing complex molecules including those that didn’t exist in nature

This is the start of Synthetic Organic Chemistry and it all started with chemist Friedrich Wohler who discovered that he was able to synthesize urea without the production of it from kidney. This step lead to a deeper understanding of the principles of chemical structure and later on the emergence of pharmaceutical industries.

Understanding Synthetic Organic Chemistry

Synthetic organic chemistry is the process of building-up complex molecular structure from smaller and easily accessible compounds. It can be total synthesis where in the starting materials are from simple inorganic compounds creating new chemical reactions or discovering new route for an existing route from a certain targeted molecules. These could be organic compounds, medicinally important active ingredients, or natural products.

It can also be semi-synthesis or partial chemical synthesis where in it uses chemical compounds isolated from natural sources or organic compounds. These have higher molecular weight and complex molecule targets that contributes more on the production of novel compounds or medicinal properties.

There are different kinds of organic compounds but we’ll discuss more on the natural and synthetic organic chemistry.

  1. Natural Organic Chemicals – are chemicals that are available in our ecosystem and is naturally around us like, oxygen. We also get vitamins from natural resources like the sun and organic foods.

Synthetic Organic Chemistry – are man-made compounds and is available after further analyzing, planning, and testing of different organic and inorganic compounds. These man-made chemicals if undergone semi-synthesis could also produce medicinal properties that could be another source of vitamins that has properties quite similar to natural organic chemicals, although differing from origins.

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Commercial applications of peptides

Peptides are naturally synthesized assemblies constructed from amino acids into chains

The body generates peptides to perform various biological functions such as curing, fight infection and inflammation and reconstruct tissues. Because of the many possible structural combinations of the constituent amino acids, peptides are extensively used in medicine and cosmetic industry

  • Anti-Aging Creams

Products marketed as anti-aging creams encompass a variation of peptides. A protein known as Collagen, gives skin its elasticity. Although the skin contains plenty of collagen but the production diminutions with age.  They produce more collagen hence more elasticity and fewer wrinkles. These are the best anti aging creams that are helping millions of people to fight aging and to remain younger  for longer years with these creams.

  • Imaging

Body scans work by sending dyes through the bloodstream when they interact with certain tissues they produce fluorescence. Peptides, are drawn to acidic and hypoxic tissues, which characterize tumor and inflammation sites. Specific peptides in the fluorescing material, produce magnitudes five times superior than in control experiments lacking peptides. Thus, peptide synthesis incorporated dyes provide physicians a new weapon for the detection of cancer even at early stages.

  • Aspartame

The 0-calorie sweetener found in many beverages is a manufactured peptide. Aspartame is formed when aspartic acid and phenylalanine are fused together, forming a dipeptide bond that is 200 times sweeter than sugar.

  • Anti-Microbial Treatments

Body produces antibodies to fight the ambient microbes corresponding to sun damage, injury or acne lesions on the skin. Lesions provide an opening for such an invasion. The body recognizes the lesions and overflows the area with white blood cells and antimicrobial peptides. So, topical application of externally produced specific peptides are efficient as fast-acting antibiotics, even against drug-resistant bacteria, because they actually damage the cell wall of the invading pathogen.

 

synthetic organic chemistry

A New Direction in Chemistry: Synthetic Organic Chemistry

At around 1820s a chemist named Friedrich Wohler discovered something that forever changed and further made development in chemistry, the figuring out of synthetic organic chemistry.

He wrote a letter to his former mentor, JonsJakob Berzelius, how he produced urea not from a living body in a laboratory through synthetic organic chemistry. They didn’t just analyze existing chemical compounds but they began to synthesize them. This started chemists to also synthesize different smaller molecules from easily accessible compounds and progressed by building-up complex molecular structures.

Components of Synthetic Organic Chemistry

In synthesizing there needs to be a starting material to create another compound, and chemists have tried almost every single compound that they know to create a more complex molecular structure. liquid chromatography must comprise of a carbon atom first and foremost to create an organic compound that could be useful for living sources. They could start up from inorganic materials as well, this is what they need for total synthesis. Through total synthesis the process is to see new chemical reactions and chemical reagents. There is also semi-synthesis or partial chemical synthesis where in the starting materials are those from isolated organic compounds that could then produce other novel compounds that could have medicinal properties. These new compounds from semi-synthesis are usually producing drugs that could also imitate natural organic chemicals.

Difference Between Natural Organic Chemicals and Synthetic Organic Chemistry

  1. Natural organic chemicals are those that’s offer to us by nature itself. It is authentic and is not made by anyone from anything. These chemicals could be from the air we breathe, the soil we step on, the fruits by the trees, or even from the sun.
  2. Synthetic organic chemistry are man-made chemicals that some of it imitates the natural source of chemicals. The vitamins that we get from nature can be produced by synthesizing chemicals having quite the same properties but differing in origin.

 

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Knowing More of Synthetic Organic Chemistry

Synthetic organic chemistry started way back nineteenth century where chemist Friedrich Wohler discovered the production of urea even outside human bodies using inorganic chemicals

He treated silver cyanate with ammonium chloride that resulted in the production of urea. He immediately told his fellow colleague regarding his discovery. He was able to make a synthetic urea through the process of total synthesis that we’ll tackle later on. This was the first time that synthetic organic chemistry was discovered and made a big impact in the society of chemists. Now, they don’t simply analyze existing molecules but they’re synthesizing them as well, producing a different chemical.

Understanding the idea that an inorganic compound is used for living sources is the main purpose of synthetic organic chemistry. If you look for answers and lists of synthetic organic chemicals there are tons. Ever since it started growing chemists just can’t get enough of analyzing and experimenting. There are also different outcomes that happen when chemists synthesize smaller molecules for a rather complex molecules.

Total Synthesis and Semi-synthesis

Now let’s tackle more on the processes that chemicals go through to develop complex molecules as we’ve said earlier we have the total synthesis and other than that is semi-synthesis.

  • Total synthesis is the process that Friedrich Wohler did for the production of urea. Inorganic compounds are used as starting materials to create a more complex compounds. The results of this have given chemists light in a lot of aspect, they get to see new chemical reactions from the combination of different molecules, they get to check new routes for the synthesis of the targeted molecules – natural products, organic compounds, medicinally important active ingredients. That although these targeted molecules have existing routes it would be of good knowledge to widen the scope of different routes from them.
  • Semi-synthesis or partial chemical synthesis is a process of complete synthesis where in chemicals from isolated natural sources are used as starting material to produce novel compounds that will later on be tried on to animals to see if there are medicinal properties in it.
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Application of peptides in Skin Care

In present scenario people who are looking for the best skin-care products and cosmetic manufacturers have peptides as an ingredient at the top of their list

The skin comprises of natural peptides, that contribute to the structural strength of the skin and keep it elastic. But peptides used in skin care which are lab-created work in exactly opposite way i.e. inside out. The strands of amino acids infiltrate the skin to address common skin-care problems, including wrinkles and loosening of skin.  The effectiveness of peptides in skin care product quite remarkable and hence they tend to be really expensive.

Types of peptides used in skin care products:

  • Pentapeptides

PalmitoylPentapeptide, also named as Matrixyl, and MyristoylPentapeptidearespecific pentapeptides found in skin care products. Collagen and hyaluronic acid are the two natural components of skin that helps to support the skin structure and helps to keep the elasticity of the skin intact loss of which results in wrinkles and sagging skin, the pentapeptide works by stimulating these two natural compounds in skin.

  • Copper Peptides

Copper peptides catch up with molecules of copper to carry out their function. The amalgamation of peptide molecule and copper molecules make their way into the deeper layers of the skin. Once they reach inside the epidermal layer of the skin they start stimulating collagen growth and promote skin healing. Since the size of the copper peptide is really small, they are able to penetrate several skin layers inducing extremely high effects, which is why the demand for copper peptide in skin care industry has been on the rise

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  • Neuropeptides

Neuropeptides perform by successful stimulation of neurotransmitters in the skin, due to which nerve cells in the skin stop interaction and relax. When the skin cells stop communicating it results in smoother and wrinkle free skin.

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Synthetic Organic Chemistry for Chemists

Since the beginning of synthetic organic chemistry it paved way to chemists to the development and impact for synthetic biology.

In the start of nineteenth century chemist Friedrich Wohler then discovered that he can produce urea without using the production from kidney and excretion via urine in the laboratory, he was then so overjoyed and wrote about this to his fellow colleague. This became a stir-up news for everyone around and yet it progresses as well and built countless molecular structure that have been useful even up until now. Synthetic chemistry organic  is still going on since then and producing different kinds of molecular structure for additional chemical reactions or for additional medicinal properties.

What Composes Synthetic Organic Chemistry?

Synthetic organic chemistry is a man-made compound that contains carbon atoms; basically because organic chemicals are deemed organic because of its component, carbon atoms. There are different kind of starting materials for synthetic organic chemistry and it could be inorganic compounds or organic compounds. Organic compounds are those that came from a living source, it could be from humans, from plants, or from animals. While inorganic compounds are those that came from nonliving sources like plastic, rubber, and so on. To make inorganic compounds useful for the use of living source is the idea of synthesizing chemicals.

There are Two Kinds of Synthesis:

  1. Total Synthesis – is the process where in inorganic compounds are the starting materials and they have target molecules that they aim to discover new route for existing ones or for those that doesn’t have routes they’d be able to create a feasible route. They also focus on creating new chemical reaction or chemical reagents.
  2. Semi-Synthesis or Partial Chemical Synthesis – is the process where in they use chemical compounds from organic chemicals to mainly create or produce novel compounds which could have chemical or medical properties that later on be part in the growing pharmaceutical industry as well.

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The History of Synthetic Organic Chemistry

Synthetic Organic Chemistry started out when chemist Friedrich Wohler performed the synthesis of urea in 1828

He excitedly told his former mentor, JonsJakob Berzelius about his new discovery that later on developed the world of organic compound and inorganic compounds. That one synthesis of organic compound led chemists to work on synthesizing different compounds and building-up complex molecules resulting in discovering new route of synthesis for certain targeted molecules that could be medicinally important active ingredients, natural products, or organic products. Synthetic organic chemicals are man-made and contains carbon atoms; since organic compounds are mainly organic because of the carbon atom in its structure.

The Process of Synthetic Organic Chemistry

The processes in doing organic synthetic chemistry involves synthetic analysis and planning. We all know that the process is so much complicated than that but we’ll tackle two ways in choosing starting materials.

  1. Total Synthesis – this uses purely and simple inorganic compounds to create complex molecular structure that results in a completely different compound. This aim is to discover new chemical reactions and chemical reagents. It also aim to find a new route of synthesis for a certain targeted molecule.
  2. Semi-Synthesis or partial chemical synthesis – this uses organic compounds from natural sources as starting material to produce compounds with medicinal properties. Unlike inorganic compounds, organic compounds have higher complexity thus developing compounds that contributes highly in synthetic organic chemistry.

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Synthetic Organic Chemistry vs Natural Organic Chemistry

First, let’s describe natural organic chemistry, as the name itself these are the chemicals that can be found in our nature and present in our everyday lives. The synthetic organic chemistry are chemicals produced by man and could be either helpful towards the development of organic chemistry or helpful as alternative to our natural medicines. Both of them have quite a similarity in their properties but they differ as to where it came from.