Even though the structure of peptides was discovered a century ago, it wasn’t until Du Vigneaud’s synthesis of oxytocin some 50 years later that the peptide field was truly propelled and pharmaceutical usage of peptides began
Since then, this field has taken some giant leaps, and production of peptides of any size and complexity is now possible. Perhaps the most significant of all techniques was Merrifield’s publication of the solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) method, which entirely revolutionized the peptide production, not only from the viewpoint of research but also because of its present widespread use for the manufacture of peptides which are used as active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).
Three basic strategies adopted in preparation of peptides are:-
- Solution-Phase Methods
- Solid-Phase Methods
- Hybrid Approaches
Most of the peptide pharmaceuticals presently are manufactured using solution-phase methodology. While the method can be useful for the production of longer peptides and even some small proteins, but the technique is mostly used to produce small or medium-length peptides. Products include angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Aspartame, the dipeptides sweetener, oxytocin, HIV protease inhibitors and LH-RH analogues.
This technique is highly useful because it could be automated, leading to rapid production of quite complex sequences. Initially as the technique was proposed there were some doubts regarding to purification methods however, since increasingly powerful analytical methods and purification techniques have become available, the technique has been increasingly used for manufacturing a number of commercial products, such as LH-RH and, Somatostatin and salmon calcitonin
While both the solution-phase and solid-phase approaches have proven to be effective for the production of a relatively extensive variety of products, both strategies have their own limitations. With the introduction of newer resins. This has unlocked the possibility of a “hybrid” approach, in which the manufacture of complex sequences is approached through the solid-phase synthesis of large fragments, that are then assembled.
The usage of plant extraction in the cosmetic industry is indispensable
Starting from Aloe vera to Calendula, the extracts from these plants are used in the nourishing of the skin and giving a glowing look for the people. It is these natural plant extraction that make the women to become angels.
The medicinal properties of aloe vera cannot be said in one or two paragraphs here. Its benefits in the production of skin lotions and sun burn creams are countless. The moisturizing and healing properties of the aloe vera extracts are under research and are still a topic of interest for many researchers. It is not only used in cosmetic, but also in the food industry mainly as a dessert. It has also been known for its healing properties of Pilates. However, it is less documented on this claim. Aloe vera extract, along with other plant extraction helps in the well being of the external appearance of the humans.
Extracts from Calendula on the other hand has both cosmetic and medicinal properties.
These flowers are commonly called as Marigold, which has yellow petal flowers that are used in medicinal areas. Ointments from Calendual extracts are found to be treating skin burns and radiation burns.
Another common and most widely known cosmetic herb is Acacia concinna, which is commonly called as Shikakai, traditionally meaning “Fruit for the hair”. The fruitplant extraction is used in hair care industry along with other natural extracts from long time. It is called as a traditional shampoo and have been in use from ancient times in India. Along with other natural extracts including the Indian goose berries, the plant extraction is extract forms a perfect alternative to the chemical hair conditioners. Even in the modern day of shampoos and soaps, the shikkai extract from this plant is incomparable in terms of the cooling effect it products on the head and the hair.
Since the beginning of synthetic organic chemistry it paved way to chemists to the development and impact for synthetic biology.
In the start of nineteenth century chemist Friedrich Wohler then discovered that he can produce urea without using the production from kidney and excretion via urine in the laboratory, he was then so overjoyed and wrote about this to his fellow colleague. This became a stir-up news for everyone around and yet it progresses as well and built countless molecular structure that have been useful even up until now. Synthetic chemistry organic is still going on since then and producing different kinds of molecular structure for additional chemical reactions or for additional medicinal properties.
What Composes Synthetic Organic Chemistry?
Synthetic organic chemistry is a man-made compound that contains carbon atoms; basically because organic chemicals are deemed organic because of its component, carbon atoms. There are different kind of starting materials for synthetic organic chemistry and it could be inorganic compounds or organic compounds. Organic compounds are those that came from a living source, it could be from humans, from plants, or from animals. While inorganic compounds are those that came from nonliving sources like plastic, rubber, and so on. To make inorganic compounds useful for the use of living source is the idea of synthesizing chemicals.
There are Two Kinds of Synthesis:
- Total Synthesis – is the process where in inorganic compounds are the starting materials and they have target molecules that they aim to discover new route for existing ones or for those that doesn’t have routes they’d be able to create a feasible route. They also focus on creating new chemical reaction or chemical reagents.
- Semi-Synthesis or Partial Chemical Synthesis – is the process where in they use chemical compounds from organic chemicals to mainly create or produce novel compounds which could have chemical or medical properties that later on be part in the growing pharmaceutical industry as well.